Acc Referee Assignments Basketball Positions

In basketball, an official (usually called a referee) enforces the rules and maintains order in the game. The title of official also applies to the scorers and timekeepers, as well as other personnel that have an active task in maintaining the game. Basketball is regarded as among the most difficult sports to officiate due to the speed of play, complexity of rules, the case-specific interpretations of rules, and the instantaneous decision required.

There is one lead referee and one umpires, depending on whether there is a two- or three-person crew. In the NBA, the lead official is called the crew chief and the other two officials are referees.[1] In FIBA-sanctioned play, two-man crews consist of a referee and an umpire, and three-man crews contain a referee and two umpires.

Regardless, both classes of officials have equal rights to control almost all aspects of the game. In most cases, the lead official (in FIBA, the referee) performs the jump ball to begin the contest, though NFHS and NCAA have allowed the referee to designate which official (referee or umpire) shall perform the jump ball.

Uniforms[edit]

In American high school and college basketball, officials wear black-and-white-striped shirts with black side panels, black pants, and black shoes. Some state high school association allow officials to wear grey shirts with black pin-stripes instead of black-and-white-striped shirts.

NBA officials wear light grey shirts with black slacks and black shoes. The NBA shirt is light grey with one black colored stripe on either shoulder, a black stripe on either side, the official's number in the center at the top on the back, and the NBA logo above the breast. NBA officials sometimes wear alternate uniforms consisting of a white shirt with light gold shoulders and black stripes. NBA Summer League officials wear the same light grey shirt but with blue shoulders. Officials can sometimes wear black shorts.[2] The WNBA referee shirt is similar to the NBA referee shirt except that its shoulder and sleeve colors are orange, and the WNBA logo takes the place of the NBA logo.[3]

FIBA officials wear a grey (torso) and black (sleeves) shirt, black trousers, black socks, and black shoes. Officials in competitions organized by Euroleague Basketball (company)—the Euroleague and Eurocup—wear an orange shirt. Officials in the Israel Basketball Association wear the Euroleague's orange shirt but sometimes wear royal blue shirts for contests between two Israeli teams. NBL officials wear grey shirts with black shoulders and orange stripes on the sides. The NBL logo is atop the breast and a sponsor's name is on the back. Shirts are V-neck, without a collar, and pants lack belts.

All officials wear a whistle that is used to stop play as a result of a foul or a violation on the court. Hand signals are used to indicate the nature of the infraction or to administer the game.

In higher levels of college and professional basketball, officials wear a timing device on the belt-line called PTS (Precision Timing System). The device is used by on court officials to start and stop the game clock in a timely manner, rather than waiting for the scoreboard operator (timekeeper) to do so.

Positions and responsibilities[edit]

The officials must ensure that the game runs smoothly, and this encompasses a variety of different responsibilities, from calling the game to player and spectator management. They also carry a duty of care to the players they officiate and to ensure that the court and all equipment used is in a safe and usable condition. Should there be an issue that inhibits the safe playing of the game, then it is the job of the officials to rectify the problem. Quite often, the job of an official surpasses that of the game at hand, as they must overcome unforeseen situations that may or may not have an influence on the game.

There are two standard methods for officiating a basketball game, either "two-person" or "three-person" mechanics depending on how many officials are available to work the game. In "two-person" mechanics, each official works either the lead or the trail position. The lead position is normally along the baseline of the court, with the trail position having its starting point at the free throw line extended on the left side of the court facing the basket. Officials do change position a lot during the game to cover the area in the best possible way. As the game transitions from one end of the court to the other, the lead becomes the trail and vice versa. Between the two positions, each is responsible for a specific part of the court as well as two each of the side, base or back court lines. Officials change position after certain calls (mostly when the lead official calls a defensive foul). This allows officials to alternate between positions to increase the speed of play; one official will approach the bench whilst another, usually the closest to the bench at that time, will move to occupy his position. This also prevents one official from always working one particular team's basket throughout the course of the game.

In "three-person" mechanics, the court is further divided among three officials, with the lead (baseline) official determining the position of the other two officials. Normally, the lead official will move to the side of the court in which the ball is located (strong side), particularly if there is a "post-up" player in that position. The official that is on the same sideline as the lead official then takes up a position approximately level with the top of the three-point line and becomes the "trail" official, while the third official will stand across the court near the free throw line in what is called the center position. This creates a triangle coverage of the court. Often, the lead will switch sides of the baseline during a play, requiring the trail to move down to be level with the free-throw line and become the new center, while the center will move up and become the trail. As the ball moves to the other end of the court in transition, the lead will become the trail, the trail will become the lead, and the center official will remain in the centre (unless the new "lead" moves across the baseline to cover the strong side, in which case the center official and trail would then switch positions.)

Difficulty[edit]

Basketball is regarded by many fans as among the most difficult sports to officiate.[citation needed] Usually basketball officials have only a brief moment to determine if an infraction has occurred, due to the speed of play of the game and the officials' proximity to the action. Especially difficult is the "charge/block" call as to which player is responsible for contact. Officials often rely on instant replay to review plays.

Despite the misconception that basketball is a non-contact sport, officials often let a large amount of marginal or incidental contact pass uncalled. An official must always be wary of not just what is happening around the ball, but the roughness of play going on around the whole court, adding to the job of the official.

Further complicating the job of an official is the proximity to the crowds. Unlike football or baseball, the crowd is nearly always located within a few feet of the official, as are coaches and other players on the bench. To combat this, officials are able to remove a fan from the arena with an ejection.

Duties[edit]

Violations[edit]

When a violation occurs, game action is immediately stopped. These include traveling, illegal dribbles, out-of-bounds, and other violations. The official is required to blow the whistle and immediately stop play and award the ball over to the opposing team.

References[edit]

NCAA official Moe Kincaid making a call in a 2008 college basketball game
A diagram of the relative positions of basketball officials in "three-person" mechanics. The lead official (L) is normally along the baseline of the court. The trail official (T) takes up a position approximately level with the top of the three-point line. The center official (C) stands across the court near the free throw line.
NBA referees Monty McCutchen (center), Tom Washington (#49) and Brent Barnaky reviewing a play.

Football Zebras has obtained the officiating crew rosters for the 2017 NFL season. This season, there are 8 new officials to replace officials that retired or were moved up to the league office. There are five veteran officials designated as swing officials, matching last season’s record-level bench. The swing officials will move between crews through the season, and include include two umpires, two line-of-scrimmage officials, and a deep wing. Umpire Bill Schuster once again is listed as a swing official, however last season he was moved to a crew in preseason to replace an injured official. Head linesman Jim Howey is in his third stint as a swing official, having previously been one in 2011 due to an injury and continuing into 2012.

For the second consecutive season, there are no new “white hats,” as everyone from the referee position remains. Four crew chiefs were added from 2014-15.

This season, the NFL has renamed the head linesman position to down judge, in deference to use a gender-neutral term.

Crew members are listed with their years of NFL experience, including the upcoming season, the crews they were on last season, the college attended, and occupations. A replay official is assigned to each crew, but the replay assistant is assigned to the stadium, much like the chain crews and clock operators.

Veteran officials who have changed positions from last season are indicated at the bottom of each crew list.

*indicates an official who is on the same crew as last season.

R122Brad Allen4Pembroke Statenon-profit CEO
U11Fred Bryan9*Northern Iowasuperintendent, juvenile correctional facility
DJ48Jim Mello14*Northeasternfacilities manager
LJ40 Brian Bolinger1NAIndiana Statecorporate safety director 
FJ97Tom Hill19*Carson Newmanteacher
SJ26Jabir Walker3ParryMurray Statemath teacher
BJ83Shawn Hochuli4*Claremontfinancial advisor

 

R66Walt Anderson22Texascollege officiating coordinator, retired dentist
U124Carl Paganelli18(swing)Michigan Stateretired federal probation officer
DJ6Jerod Phillips2*Northeastern Stateelementary school teacher
LJ18Byron Boston23*Austintax consultant
FJ117John Jenkins4*St. Mary’ssales executive
SJ125Laird Hayes23*Princetonowner of football camps for high school and youth
BJ119Greg Wilson10*USClaw enforcement

 

R34Clete Blakeman10Nebraskaattorney
U128Ramon George2*Lenoir-Rhynefinancial underwriter
DJ94Hugo Cruz3*Texas-Pan Americaninvestment manager
LJ8Dana McKenzie10BogerToledoclaims adjuster
FJ73Joe Larrew16*St Louisattorney
SJ109Dyrol Prioleau11TripletteJohnson C Smithmanager, law firm
BJ17Steve Patrick4*Jacksonville Stateowner, supply company

 

R23Jerome Boger14Morehouse Collegeretired commercial insurance underwriter
U49Rich Hall14*Arizonacustom cabinetry
DJ134Ed Camp18*William Patersonphysical education teacher
LJ63Mike Carr1NAWisconsinathletic director
FJ103Eugene Hall4*North Texasfederal agent
SJ87Walt Coleman IV3*Southern Methodistfinancial advisor
BJ112Tony Steratore18*California (Pa.)co-owner, supply company

 

R51Carl Cheffers18California-Irvinesales manager
U19Clay Martin3HochuliTulsahigh school basketball coach
DJ100Tom Symonette14AllenFloridacertified public accountant
LJ79Kent Payne14*Nebraska Wesleyanteacher
FJ31Mearl Robinson1NAAir Forceinstructor 
SJ88Brad Freeman4*Mississippi Statesports park director
BJ5Jim Quirk8*Middleburyfinancial advisor

 

R65Walt Coleman29Arkansasmanager dairy processor
U44Jeff Rice23*Northwesternattorney
DJ74Derick Bowers15*East Centralsales representative
LJ16Kevin Codey3*Western New Englandmiddle school physical education teacher
FJ1Scott Novak4CheffersPhoenixsales manager
SJ95James Coleman13(swing)Arkansaselectrical engineer
BJ111Terrence Miles10*Arizona Statequality control manager

 

R99Tony Corrente23Cal State-Fullertonretired educator
U76Alan Eck2*Bloomsburg Statetax manager
DJ13Patrick Turner4*Cal State-Long Beachplant manager
LJ2Bart Longson3*Brigham Youngco-founder and CEO, digital finance company
FJ82Buddy Horton19*Oregon Statewater service worker
SJ25Ryan Dickson1NAUtahcommercial real estate developer 
BJ30Todd Prukop9*Cal State-Fullertonmedical sales representative

 

R85Ed Hochuli28Texas-El Pasoattorney
U14Shawn Smith3TripletteFerris Stateinternal auditor
DJ98Greg Bradley9*Tennesseechemical engineer
LJ59Rusty Baynes8*Auburn-Montgomerygeneral manager, safety services
FJ104Dale Shaw5*Alleghenypharmaceutical sales
SJ55Alex Kemp4*Central Michiganinsurance agent
BJ93Scott Helverson15*Iowasales, printing and promotions

 

R35John Hussey16Idaho Statesales representative, retail logistics group
U115Tony Michalek16*IndianaUSA Football officiating director
DJ123Ed Walker4SteratoreSan Jose Statereal estate management
LJ107Ron Marinucci21*Glassboro Statevice president, novelty cone company
FJ86Jimmy Buchanan9*South Carolina Stateinsurance agent
SJ56Allen Baynes10*Auburnrealtor
BJ61Keith Ferguson18*San Jose Statesales

 

R77Terry McAulay20Louisiana Statecollege officiating coordinator
U54Steve Woods1NAWabashfinancial advisor 
DJ91Jerry Bergman16*Robert Morrissales executive
LJ101Carl Johnson14MorelliNicholls Statefull-time official
FJ72Michael Banks16VinovichIllinois Statecarpenter foreman
SJ120Jonah Monroe3*Arkansassystems engineer
BJ39Rich Martinez4*Canisiussales manager

 

R135Pete Morelli21St. Mary’shigh school principal
U92Bryan Neale4*Indianasales consultant
DJ22Steve Stelljes16*Friendsbusiness planning manager
LJ47Tim Podraza10CheffersNebraskacorporate real estate
FJ126Brad Rogers1NALubbock Christiancollege professor 
SJ41Boris Cheek22*Morgan Statedirector of operations and management
BJ12Greg Steed15*Howardcomputer systems analyst

 

R132John Parry18Purduefinancial advisor
U131Mark Pellis4*Alleghenyfinancial advisor
DJ90Mike Spanier19(swing)St Cloud Statemiddle school principal
LJ45Jeff Seeman16*Minnesotabrokerage sales
FJ118David Meslow7AllenAugsburg Collegemarketing manager
SJ7Keith Washington10*Virginia Military Instituteprogram financial analyst
BJ46Perry Paganelli20*Hope Collegeretired high school administrator

 

R114Gene Steratore15Kent Stateco-owner, supply company
U81Roy Ellison15(swing)Savannah Statetechnical staff member
DJ24David Oliver1NABakerinformation systems manager 
LJ108Gary Arthur21*Wright Statepresident, commercial printing company
FJ116Mike Weatherford16*Oklahoma Stateenergy trader
SJ29Adrian Hill8BlakemanBuffalosoftware engineer
BJ105Dino Paganelli12*Aquinas Collegeeducator

 

R62Ron Torbert8Michigan Stateattorney
U121Paul King9*Nicholls Stateschool teacher
DJ53Sarah Thomas3TripletteMobilepharmaceutical sales representative
LJ84Mark Steinkerchner24*Akronvice-president
FJ50Aaron Santi3*Southern Oregonmiddle school principal
SJ3Scott Edwards19TripletteAlabamaenvironmental engineer
BJ38Greg Yette8*Howarddefense contractor

 

R42Jeff Triplette22Wake Forestrestructuring consultant
U71Ruben Fowler12CheffersHuston-Tillotsonretired firefighter
DJ32Jeff Bergman26*Robert Morrispresident and chief executive officer, medical services
LJ113Danny Short1NANorth Carolina-Charlotteexecutive officer, global sales operations 
FJ80Greg Gautreaux16TorbertSW Louisianaathletic programs manager
SJ43Terry Brown12ColemanTennesseeprobation supervisor
BJ133Steve Freeman17*Mississippi Statecustom home builder (former NFL player)

 

R52Bill Vinovich13San Diegoaccountant, former NFL officiating supervisor
U102Bruce Stritesky12*Embry Riddleairline pilot
DJ110Phil McKinnely16*UCLAinventory control (former NFL player)
LJ9Mark Perlman17*Salemteacher
FJ89Jon Lucivansky9(swing)Minnesotacollege educator
SJ60Gary Cavaletto15*Hancockgeneral manager, agricultural operations
BJ78Greg Meyer16*Texas Christianbanker

 

R4Craig Wrolstad15Washingtonathletic director
U20Barry Anderson11*North Carolina Statebuilder/developer
DJ28Mark Hittner21*Pittsburg Stateinvestment broker
LJ10Julian Mapp9*Grambling Statesoftware QA tester
FJ33Steve Zimmer21*Hofstraattorney
SJ21Jeff Lamberth16*Texas A&Mattorney
BJ27

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